Thank you for trusting your question to JA today. I am a licensed attorney with over a decade of law practice and over 20 years of experience in the legal field. I’m happy to be of assistance.
In employment law, our rights are limited. Without a contract of employment stating that we can only be terminated for cause, we are "at will" employees who can legally be terminated at any time, with or without cause or warning.
So, you have hinted at discriminatory motive, but to be able to have a claim (absent a contract), you must be prepared to allege that the basis for your termination and/or harassment is your gender, race, religion, age, disability or recent medical leave use.
If you are willing to at least allege that, for the purpose of having it investigated, you can potentially have more. The EEOC is a federal agency tasked with investigating allegations of discrimination. In most cases an employer is not overt in their discrimination and so employees are acting on hunches. Feelings about why they are being targeted, based on the things they see around them. The EEOC's job is to try and get more information through their federally granted investigatory powers...information you can't get. You must go through that agency to preserve any potential right to sue and to obtain a right to sue letter.
As for your allegation, think about the harassment you have faced. Have others of a different gender, race or age faced the same treatment? If you were terminated, are others of a different gender, race or age being retained, whose work record doesn't compare to yours? These are "disparate treatment" allegations, meaning differing treatment and your theory would be that your inclusion in one or more protected categories is the basis for that differing treatment.
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