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This is a difficult situation because employers have tremendous latitude when it comes to evaluating their employees. Since employment is "at will" absent an agreement to the contrary and as such can be terminated at any time, with or without good cause, it would make little sense to regulate the review process, as employers don't even need to conduct reviews in order to deny transfers or even terminate employment. The only exception to the above is if you can prove that you are being targeted because of a legally protected trait, such as your race, religion or gender. However, you would need affirmative evidence to this effect. The fact that you simply disagree with your negative review or up to this point had positive reviews does not prove that your employer is targeting you because of a legally protected trait. This sort of thing is never proven by process of elimination.
If you do believe that your employer's motivation is a legally protected trait such as your race (you mention your race, which causes me to believe you may suspect this), your recourse would be to file a complaint with the EEOC. The EEOC will investigate and put pressure on your employer to change its negative evaluation if it finds cause to believe you were negatively evaluated because of your race or due to some other legally protected trait. The EEOC will also give you the option to sue if it finds cause to believe there is discrimination.
But beyond framing this as an illegal discrimination issue, you would not have any legal recourse and your only option is to attempt to reason with your employer.
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