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Absolutely not. As long as you have provided medical documentation as to the doctor's orders relative to your health, they cannot terminate you. If they were do to so, you would have a very viable ADA discrimination based law suit. You may not be paid for the days that you miss or you may have to use medical leave or vacation, but they cannot terminate you for a short term medical absense such as this one.
I am a licensed attorney with over a decade of employment law experience.
You just need to concentrate on getting better and don't worry about losing your job.
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Just checking in with you to see if you had any additional questions or comments. I want to make sure you are as comfortable as possible moving forward. Thanks