Employment Law Questions? Ask an Employment Lawyer.
Unfortunately, in this country, generalized harassment is not illegal in employment law. When the Supreme Court of the United States addressed the definition of the term "hostile work environment" that court made it clear that our employment laws are not meant to be a civility code. Harassment without the ingredient of discrimination is not illegal.
What that means in this situation is that unless you can allege that the actually basis for the hostility against you was based on your race, religion, gender, age, disability or recent medical leave use there would be no recourse available through external employment laws.
You'd then have to look to your employment agreement to determine if there is anything in that contract that was violated. Specifically, your contract would have to state that you could only be terminated for cause, so that you could argue against the validity of the cause given. Without a contract term like the one I mentioned, your employment is "at will" and can legally be terminated at any time, so the contract wouldn't be of any help either.
No, because verbal abuse is not illegal in employment law. It is treated in the exact same way as generalized harassment.
If you can point to a threat of physical violence, that becomes assault and is a tort claim that can be brought in a personal injury small claims case, but there is no other complaint that you can legally make concerning verbal abuse in the workplace.
Again, our employment laws are not meant to be a civility code and while such behavior is unprofessional and immature, it is not illegal without the threat of physical violence (and even then, it is not an employment law violation but a civil tort claim).
You can certainly try that, but I have not recommended it because in my two decades in this profession I have not seen a single OSHA complaint in that category be successful.
I have only read about a few that have been successful, and in those cases the individual verbal abuse was so great that it amounted to intentional infliction of emotional distress, another tort claim. So, the elements have to be about the same. To have an idea of how outrageous the verbal abuse has to be, think along the lines of a doctor telling a mother that her child died when the child had not. Furthermore, there had to be physical manifestations of the emotional distress. By this, I mean expert testimony of a medical physical manifestation of the emotional distress from the verbal abuse. You noted that you cried, but made no mention of any medically recognized physical manifestations of emotional distress.
Finally, the OSHA complaint would not result in a lawsuit for you. It would just be between OSHA and the employer. OSHA might (and again, I've have never seen it happen personally) fine the employer, but it would not go to you and OSHA wouldn't be able to force the employer to give you your job back. There would be no wrongful termination claim stemming from it.
You can make the OSHA complaint, just to have it on record, if that's what you're looking to do.
Other than that, just word of mouth about your experience.