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Unfortunately, employment in the state of Missouri is "at will" absent an express agreement to the contrary. At will employment can be terminated for any reason not amounting to discrimination on the basis of a legally protected trait (race, religion, gender, etc.) or retaliation for engaging in certain forms of legally protected conduct (filing a wage claim, taking FMLA leave, etc.). It doesn't matter whether the basis for termination is fair, reasonable or even true.
Since employees can be fired for virtually any reason, without regard to whether that reason is fair or good, employees can eliminate a position and deny an employee their old job back. Basically, the simplest way of looking at it is that no law requires an employer to keep someone employed. The employee can quit at any time, and at any time the employer can decide to end the relationship. They don't need to explain their decision, and the decision does not need to be reasonable or even ethical, just so long as the reason is not an unlawful one.
So, unless you had compelling evidence that this was all a ruse to terminate you because of a protected trait or activity (i.e. it was recently discovered that you are a practicing Muslim and you believe this was an effort to terminate you because of your religion), then you would not have any legal recourse against your employer. The extent of your recourse would be to file for unemployment benefits, which you should have no problem getting approved for under the circumstances you describe.
I hope that you find this information helpful and am genuinely sorry if it is not what you were hoping to hear. Please do not hesitate to let me know if you have any questions or concerns regarding the above and I will be more than happy to assist you further.
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