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The employer can claim that you were negligent in the use of the equipment and attribute the damages to you. However, they normally would have to sue you to recover.
They are not supposed to withhold your pay, but should have sued and had the courts figure it out. Unfortunately, Florida is a horrible state for this to happen in, because it's Department of Labor does not file wage claims on behalf of employees. Essentially, that means that employers do lots of things that they legally shouldn't, because for you to get the matter fixed, you'll have to sue them.
I would sue them in small claims court for the unpaid wages, if you believe that the employer has no legitimate ability to state that you were negligent in your use of the equipment. If they can say that though suing them could backfire on you here, because the court could very well determine that you owe them that additional $172.87.
They are not supposed to, but for you to be able to do anything about it, you'd have to sue them, and there they'd counter-sue for the damages.
In the end, the chances of the court punishing them for improperly withholding is very low. Accidental damage can be negligence. Intentional damage is actual criminal destruction, so while I appreciate that the damage was not intentional, that is not a requirement for suing you for damages.