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No, it generally would not be legal to terminate an employee based on the suspicion that the employee will not be able to due their job at a future point in time due to a medical condition.
If your employer has 50 or more employees, you are likely eligible for up to 12 weeks of protected job leave under the Family Medical Leave Act (see here for the form you need to fill out in order to take leave under the Act: http://www.dol.gov/whd/forms/WH-380-E.pdf
If your employer has 15 employees or more, state and federal law require them to "reasonably accommodate" disabilities. Reasonable accommodations can include allowing protected time off work (perhaps even in addition to the 12 weeks provided under the FMLA
), modified job duties, a reduced schedule, etc. The only limitation is that the accommodations may not impose "undue hardship" on the employer's business.
So, an individual in your circumstance likely has legal protections, and therefore termination
based simply on the fact that your employer "doesn't think" you'll be able to work after surgery would be against the law.
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