First, let's address the gender and race comments. Unless the comments are directed at your race or your gender, they do not qualify as discrimination
that would give you any sort of protection or action within the workplace. So, the comments alone are not enough.
For you to be protected, you have to have made a complaint to HR to resolve what you believe to be inappropriate discrimination in the workplace. Then, any retaliation
against you for having made that HR report would be illegal under Title VII
So, until you actually go to HR, you are unprotected, in terms of these race and gender comments. They avail you no legal avenues until you take the step of reporting it. Once you report it, the employer should come down on this manager for the comments.
Next, on the issue of your illness, an employer is legally permitted to ask about the basis for medical absences and whether or not you can continue to work. They have a legal obligation to their other employees and they also have potential liability for allowing someone to work who shouldn't be working. So, the questions concerning your health were not illegal.
If you received this illness while working with them, you should be covered under worker's compensation, considering this a workplace injury/illness. The problem you'll have is connecting it to workplace rather than travel, which may or may not be "work" related. For instance, if you got the MRSA while in a hotel, during your off hours when on travel, it could be considered not work related. Regardless, it is worth filing it as a worker's compensation claim, to place you under another layer of protection. Termination
when you are using worker's compensation is not illegal, but it takes on the appearance of retaliation for using worker's compensation, which is illegal.