No, an employer is not an insurer or a medical care provider to you and in that respect HIPAA does not protect you with the employer. In fact, if the employer insists on proof of your illness more than "I'm sick and its personal" they can make the employee produce that information (which they would have to keep in a confidential file and would be bound then under the state confidentiality of medical records laws only for the actual medical documentation not to release that information except to other employees who have a legitimate business reason to know the information). Just the fact an employee tells the employer "I'm sick" would not be protected under either HIPAA or the state confidentiality laws.
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