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Try this on a computer or your tablet if you can and make sure you have wifi connections.
Go to that yahoo login page and put your email in. You are still listed and that phone number you have will get
a text message with a code. Put that code in and change your password.
Your phone is still listed to the account. Let me know if you get stuck and what your result is.
Log out of your devices after, make sure they are connected to internet.
Please do this from a PC if you can and not the devices you are locked out of.