Hi! I'm Eric, an email expert who's been paired with you through JustAnswer.com. I'm reviewing your question now, and will return w/ an answer soon!
You were right to be concerned! Apple would not ask you for your credit card information in this manner. I believe that the email you received was the lead-in to a "phishing" scam; that is, a scam designed to part you with personal information or money.
If you did not submit your credit card information, you are safe and nothing more needs to be done in regard to this particular matter.
Did you have any other questions about this that I could answer for you?