Hello and welcome to just answer.
Unfortunatley, the ways google uses to verify, are setup after you log in, or at the time of setup.
Google doesn't know the email belongs to you. As you mentioned, you didn't even set it up. SO the photo I is not going to work. What would google compare you ID to?
You can either, enter a phone number that was used at time of setup, or use the recovery email used at time of setup.
Otherwise....Unfortunately your locked out.
Passwords, and recovery options are not meant to be easy for a reason