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1) I recommend that you contact the local electrical utility to repair the pole & transformer if you have not already done so.
2) Power strips and/or surge suppressors are rated in Joules which is a measurement of electrical energy. Such devices are manufactured with internal electronics to provide against a power surge. Appliances such as microwave ovens and ranges do not have a "built-in" Joule rating. The higher the Joule rating on a power strip or surge suppressor, the better the protection for the plugged-in loads.
3) Yes, if the utility transformer was damaged and the attached power lines were torn off, your electrical service to the home may be totally not working or the 120 volt portion may not be working. All depends if 2 or 3 of the transformer wires were damaged and came loose. Your home has a combination of 120 and 240 volts. Electric appliances such as ranges, electric dryers, etc all require 240 volts.
4) Until the problem is repaired by the utility, I recommend that you kill power to the home by turning the main breaker in the electrical panel to the OFF position and leave it OFF until the utility corrects the problem. If the 2 hot conductors are still intact but the neutral wire was damaged at the pole, this can easily destroy any sensitive electronics such as TV's, computers, printers, etc.