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1) The majority of residential electric dryers require a 30 amp double pole circuit breaker
using 10 AWG copper wires for the branch circuit. Depending upon how the circuit was originally installed, the dryer cord can either be a 3 prong or a 4 prong dryer cord (with or without a ground wire).
240 volt electric dryers require either a NEMA rated 14-30R receptacle (4 prong) or a NEMA rated 10-30R receptacle (3 prong). The NEMA rating is stamped on the face of the 240 volt receptacle.
2) Just because you have another 240 volt receptacle, does not mean the dryer will work correctly or the dryer plug will fit into the receptacle. Depends upon the breaker and wire size as well as the receptacle prong configuration. There are numerous versions of 240 volt receptacles and they are all different based on the amps, neutral and equipment grounding conductors.
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