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1) A stovetop is 240 volts AC and only requires 2 hots from the breaker and a ground.
2) If there is no clock or timer on the stovetop, a white neutral wire is not required, only the 2 hots feeding from a double pole breaker is required.
3) Most likely, the diagram is showing the connection used as 2 wire Romex cable with the black and the white both terminating on the double pole breaker.
4) For your connection, terminate 1 black and 1 red from your breaker to the same colors on the stove. You should have either a bare copper or a green wire from your electrical panel. The stove top bare will splice to either the green or a bare copper ground wire.
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