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1) Depends upon what your wiring scheme will be? If using Romex, then yes, you will need to run a home run 12/2 NM (with ground) cable back to the main electrical panel.
2) If you have existing metal conduit nearby and that conduit is already a home run to the panel and there is sufficient space to accommodate (2) two additional 12 AWG copper wires, then you can attempt to install the 1 hot and 1 neutral wire into the existing conduit. If the conduit is filled and you wish to install new conduit, then a home run back to the panel will be required. 1/2" EMT would be required.
3) If the basement is unfinished, you need GFCI protection on either the 20 amp dedicated breaker or the 1st receptacle will need to be a GFCI type.
4) All receptacles need to be tamper resistant types.
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