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Hi, I'm Dr. Jill. I'm sorry to hear of the pain your Golden Retriever is experiencing. From your description, I suspect she may be experiencing pain from somewhere in her spine. I often see this in dogs who don't seem painful when putting pressure on their neck/back/limbs and don't show any limping, but cry out and seem to be experiencing episodes of significant pain intermittently. Sometimes this is when they move a certain way, such as getting up.
As long as she is otherwise well (can use her limbs normally, eating/drinking/pooping/peeing normally), rest and medications to help with pain are what I use to address spinal pain. Most of the medications we use are prescription. You can try some aspirin with her, though I wouldn't do this for more than a few days. And if you do take her in to see your regular veterinarian, let them know so they can avoid giving other medications that may cause complications when given with aspirin.
Unless she has a disc in her spine that is impinging on her spinal cord enough to cause loss of nerve function, she shouldn't need surgery if spinal pain is the source of her issues. In dogs that are unable to move their back limbs or have other severe nerve function loss, surgery may be an option. But that does not sound like it is the case with your girl.
Small amounts of walking are good to keep the spine moving, but I'd also keep her from doing any high energy running, jumping, etc. as well.
No problem, I hope this is helpful! On the bright side, since it sounds like she's otherwise well, I don't think this needs emergency treatment. Hopefully with some rest she'll be feeling better soon. If not, or if there are other changes with her (such as decreased appetite, more lethargy, etc.) that are out of the ordinary for her, it would definitely be worth reassessing to see if something else is wrong.
Please let me know if you have any further questions regarding this issue. I would be happy to assist further in any way I can.