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Hi. My name is***** Congratulations on the new addition to the house. Did this worm look like a small piece of spaghetti? Or like a little rice segment?
If it looked more like a small piece of spaghetti, then a roundworm would be very suspect. These are very, very, very common with new puppies. They can get them from mom by nursing if she has them or from the environment they were in. The actual worms themselves are just adults that are being passed. There are eggs in the feces that are going to be infective to people and dogs here in about a month. The best thing that you can do is to pick up all stools immediately as it takes about a month for the eggs to mature to become infective. Taking her to your vet tomorrow would be a very good idea! They can do a stool sample to see what specific parasites are there and then to deworm her. They can also get her started on her vaccines. Could this be a tapeworm from eating a flea? Those adult worms look more rice like. Here is a good link on roundworms.
If it is more like rice, then tapeworm segments are most suspect. This will sound gross, but your kids could directly eat one of the segments and not be at risk. The eggs in that proglottid segment aren't infective to people. They need a secondary host to become infective. Most likely the puppy got them from eating a flea. So, flea control will be a big subject with that vet visit.
Here is a great link on the most common tapeworm of dogs. The life cycle has the flea eggs eaten by flea larvae, so the only way people can be infected is if they actually eat a flea.