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Hi. My name is***** Thank you for your question. You've asked a very good set of questions. What are the general risks of anesthesia? With todays anesthetic protocols, monitoring, skills of the veterinarian and their staff - the risks are typically very, very minimal. If he's a healthy dog with no underlying health issues (heart disease, liver issues, etc..), then the risk of a general anesthetic protocol is very, very little. But, there is never a zero percent risk anesthetic procedure. When general anesthesia is done, they are placed under an anesthetic that is typically an inhaled gas anesthetic so their level of depth can be controlled and an airway is secured. This is the safest general anesthetic protocol. As far as an alternative to a general anesthesia, could he be lightly sedated and a local block with lidocaine be done to remove the mass? This is something that can be done in certain cases depending on the personality of the dog and the location / size of the growth. You could talk to your vet to see if this is an option they feel is valid.