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Hello. Thanks for the question.
My guess would be that this is a disc or spinal issue. In a golden, the most likely area is the lumbo-sacral (LS) junction. They can get disc herniations or narrowing at this space. This leads to pain and it almost gives a hip dysplasia look to the dog. Sometimes we can get a pain response when we push up on the tail or pick up both rear legs by the thigh and push them upwards.
The true test to diagnose this is an MRI. That will show you narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve compression or disc herniation. CT is ok, but MRI gives us a clear answer.
I would consult with a neurologist. Take some videos of what he does at home first, though, so they know what is going on. That will help a lot in making the diagnosis. If it is the LS space, they could potentially remove the disc or stabilize that segment to reverse or decrease the signs.