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Hello I am Dr. Joey. Thanks for trusting me to help you and your pet today. I am a licensed veterinarian with over 16 years of experience. I look forward to working with you.
There should be no worries with this. Yes, we do worry about garlic, but it is fresh (uncooked) garlic that is our concern. Cooked garlic in the low amount in such types of sauces is probably going to be just fine. There might be more concern if he ate the entire place of pasta. Overall, probably he will be just fine.
To be more specific, it takes about 5 g of garlic per kg of body weight to cause issues in dogs (hemolysis). At 5 lbs that means he would need to eat 11g of garlic which is about 3-4 minced teaspoons of fresh garlic OR about 1 teaspoonful of garlic powder. Do you think there was that much Fresh garlic is less potent than powdered (because it has been dried and concentrated). Onion and garlic powder can be present in a lot of foods, but usually in very small amounts. Exceptions would be things like onion-flavored soup or gravy mixes and some baby foods, which can have considerably higher levels of onion/garlic.
In one piece of pasta, there is going to be some garlic but I cannot think there would be enough garlic concentrated on that small bit.
Let me know what questions you have.