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Hello. Thanks for the question.
You're almost surely seeing a flea. They will crawl in and out of the hair. They are very common in shelters. They have so many dogs coming in and out, that they cannot fully de-contaminate these facilities.
You'll want to use something like Capstar orally to kill the fleas on her quickly. You then start a topical monthly preventative. Ideally, I would give this year round to prevent infestations.
Here is a nice handout on flea control to read over:
I hope this helps, let me know if you have any other questions.
Most pet stores and big chain stores carry it. I would call first to make sure, but they should carry it at Walmart.
I would treat all the animals in the house, yes.
The dog bed can be washed in warm or hot water- that will kill any fleas, eggs or larvae.
It's not always a quick fix, but sticking with therapy and giving it a couple months will usually get it under control. Catching it quickly is also important in more mild infestations.
I would go with Frontline. Don't use Hartz or Sergeant's, as they can be toxic in dogs. Frontline is safe, even in puppies this young.
Fipronil is the active ingredient in Frontline- that is the generic. That would be fine to use.
I work ER, I'm up until 7- no worries!