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Thank you for your question. My name is***** I have been a small animal veterinarian for 13 years and I'd like to help with your question.
I'd be interested in knowing a bit more about what tests were done and what the results were, but the basic approach to a bleeding nose would be to first decide if this was bleeding problem or a specific nasal problem. There are several blood tests to check for a bleeding problem... they would run a CBC to check the platelets (cells involved in clotting blood and stopping bleeding). They would run clotting times (PT and PTT). This tests to see if all the other factor involved in clotting and stopping bleeding are functioning normally. If those are normal then they might check blood pressure to make sure there isn't high blood pressure causing the bleeding. This may or may not be done because it is uncommon and many vets don't have the equipment to measure blood pressure.
If these tests were normal then they would look at the nose itself. Bloody noses are caused by problems that cause erosion in the nose.... for example, a bacterial infection doesn't cause erosion so it would cause a snotty nose, but not a bloody nose. But a fungal infection causes erosion so you get a bloody nose. Really the only things that happen in the nose and cause it to bleed are fungal infections or tumors...... sometimes sedation and scoping of the nose or X-rays of the skull can detect these problems, but not always. Sometimes they are only picked up with a CT scan. In a 10 year old dog I would be very worried about cancer... but the only way to know for sure is to get a look in the nose either with scoping or CT. I would ask your vet if there is somewhere they can send you that can preform these tests. They are expensive, but may be the only way to get the answer.
I hope that helps, but if you have additional questions please let me know.