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Hi, My name is***** have been a small animal veterinarian for 5 years. I have spent time in emergency medicine, shelter medicine and general practice. I have also testified in a few animal cruelty trials.
That's a good question. The answer is entirely subjective and dependent on the actual weather during that time and even the breed and health status of the dog. In my opinion, if the dog had sufficient shelter from sunlight, their health status was normal, they were not a heat susceptible breed(think bulldog, husky etc...) and were provided with plenty of food and water then the dog can survive those conditions. In response to your last question, even if the dog had no shelter and was healthy with access to food and water it would likely survive without long-term effects. It would probably be mildly dehydrated just due to heat. A lot of this comes down to whether the dog had suitable shelter and whether from breed or health status he could handle the heat.