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There are many different types of chlamydia, all causing different signs in different animals. It is not seen often in dogs and not often transmitted to them. Some forms of chlamydia, such as those which cause lung problems in birds, could possibly be transferred to dogs with the same symptoms. Other forms, such as the genital form in humans is NOT transmissible to dogs. We see a chlamydia (actually called chlamydophila) in cats as an eye infection. Usually there is a green discharge. I have never seen this passed onto a dog in the same household but I guess it would be possible.
Therefore if I was to see chlamydia in a dog, it would probably be a discharge from the eye, or much more rarely a breathing/lung problem.
I would recommend having a blood test done by your veterinarian if you are concerned.