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One of the common skin disorder that affects blacks, and causes loss of pigmentation is VITILIGO
In simple terms it is due to the loss of cells (called melanocytes) that produce melanin on the skin. Melanin is the pigment that makes skin color dark.
So in an evenly dark person loss of these pigment can vary with the disease progression. In some it starts with a few patches and progressively widen and can occur even inside mucous surfaces like inner lips or anal area or vagina
The exact cause is unknown, but it is thought to be related to the melanocyte cells 'committing suicide' destroying themselves. It may be interaction of sun burn, emotional stress and immune disorders. it runs in families, but not in a strict way.Jackson