Thanks again. I am really sorry to hear this. Several things you have said would lead me to believe that this problem may not go away without further treatment. A tooth that has a pulp which is damaged, either by trauma (such as a blow to a front tooth), decay invading or approaching the pulp chamber, or even dental work which is in close proximity to the pulp, can cause irreversible changes within the tooth. Remember the pulp includes a nerve and a tiny blood vessel. When this is damaged, the body reacts by increasing the flow of blood, thereby increasing the pressure, and consequently leading to pain.
Unfortunately, your dentist was correct in saying that the nerve was irritated by the depth of the filling. I'm sure he placed some sedative liner in the depths of the preparation for the filling. This is done in hopes that no symptoms arise. Unfortunately, teeth sometimes have a "mind of their own" If you have experienced no improvement in the pain since it was placed, and judging from your last post it is not better, I would suggest you inquire about root canal therapy (endodontics). You have given me a few clues as to the degree of the problem, such as sleeplessness, throbbing pain, the desperation to remove it to ease the pain.
When a tooth is causing this degree of discomfort, the only recourse is to 1) do root canal treatment, which takes the nerve and blood vessel out of the center of the tooth, and seals it so that infection cannot occur, or 2) have the tooth removed. As a dentist we always make attempts to save teeth when possible and practical. I would discuss root canal with your dentist. If he does not do them, which some dentist choose not to do, he can refer you to an endodontist to have the treatment. This is a dentist who specializes in doing root canal therapy. Once the nerve is removed, you would experience some immediate relief, and likely total relief within days. A likely followup to root canal treatment would be placing a crown on the tooth, to protect it from fracture. When the tooth loses its vitality (pulp contents), it becomes more brittle and at a greater risk of fracture. It could break to the point of non-restorability, so a crown is usually a followup to root canal.
I hope this helps. This pain you are experiencing is so intense in nature that I believe you should have it treated as soon as possible. I would contact your dentist as soon as you can. Let me know if you have any further questions..Good luck and hang in there.