While it may be a mistake, law enforcement must still look into the matter. There are several security features when it comes to online credit card purchases (and to be honest, I do not know them all in detail). For instance, there are security algorithms used by companies that detect fraud and reject certain purchase attempts. That fact that the card went through at the outset would tend to show that there was most likely a mix-up on the other end (again, since I am not privy to all the information, the best I can do is reasonable estimates).
Also, simply changing one number on a credit card input online would cause the card to be rejected because it would most likely (based on the odds) to lead to an invalid credit card number.
The police are aware of these security features and they will be able to contact the "victim" along with their bank to determine if this constituted an intentional fraud. They will also be able to investigate the credit card processing company and the hotel to see if a mistake or error occurred on their part (which they may believe occurred based on the fact you used your real identity/address).
Nonetheless, there is nothing you can really do to stop police from investigating. They may want to speak to you once they feel they have enough information, and the decision to speak to them will be up to you. It is always wise to invoke your right to remain silent and to have an attorney present. If after speaking with the attorney, you still wish to speak to police, then you can do that with your attorney present. You can then inform the police about your phone issue and explain your position of what occurred.
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***General information provided here is for educational and informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice, nor should it be relied upon as such. It is always wise to consult with an attorney licensed in your jurisdiction as they would be in the best position to assist***