Yes, the teenager can refuse to take the BAT if s/he is only a passenger.
If there is no search warrant, if the teenager is not the driver, and if the teenager does not consent to the test, it is an illegal/unconstitutional search and seizure:
It is well established that the taking of a breath sample to test for the presence of alcohol constitutes a search under the Fourth Amendment. See Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives' Ass'n, 489 U.S. 602, 616-617, 109 S.Ct. 1402, 103 L.Ed.2d 639 (1989) (holding that "[s]ubjecting a person to a breathalyzer test, which generally requires the production of alveolar or `deep lung' breath for chemical analysis, implicates similar concerns about bodily integrity and . . . should . . . be deemed a search") (citations omitted). As such, the search must be reasonable. U.S. Const. amend. IV ("The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated. . . ."); Vernonia School Dist. 47J v. Acton, 515 U.S. 646, 652, 115 S.Ct. 2386, 132 L.Ed.2d 564 (1995) (observing that "[a]s the text of the Fourth Amendment indicates, the ultimate measure of the constitutionality of a governmental search is `reasonableness'").
There is nothing "special" in the need of law enforcement to detect evidence of ordinary criminal
wrongdoing; even where crime is on the rise and the disorder and insecurity caused by criminal behavior in a community is grave, the Supreme Court
has consistently held that "the gravity of the threat alone cannot be dispositive of questions concerning what means law enforcement officers may employ to pursue a given purpose." City of Indianapolis v. Edmond, 531 U.S. 32, 42, 121 S.Ct. 447, 148 L.Ed.2d 333 (2000). "Where a search is undertaken by law enforcement officials to discover evidence of criminal wrongdoing, th[e Supreme] Court has said that reasonableness generally requires the obtaining of a judicial warrant." Vernonia School Dist. [v. Acton], 515 U.S. [646,] 654, 115 S.Ct. 2386, 132 L.Ed.2d 564 [(1995)].
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