Although the court has the power to hold someone in contempt of court for failing to appear for jury duty, depending on the judge, they may not act on it. I would suggest contacting the county clerk via phone and telling them that you just realized you missed the date and ask them if a bench warrant has been issued. If so, you will need to contact an attorney to talk to the judge to see if he can get the judge to recall it and convert it to a show cause summons where you would appear and explain why you missed court. The judge may yell at you a bit, but it is unlikely that he would throw you in jail since you are the one coming to the court instead of being arrested and brought in.
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It would be the court in the county where you reside. That is where they pull the jury pool from. To be perfectly honest, I have seen judges issue show cause summons to people who fail to show, but not warrants.
Since it was mailed to you, you could contact the court clerk and explain that you just "found" the letter and after reading it, realized the date had passed and were worried.
But if they haven't sent a summons within a couple weeks of missing the date, they probably didn't do anything about it. You should definitely still check though.
No guarantees, but I wouldn't be too nervous at this point.
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