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Your question is answered by looking at both federal and Indiana state law.
Under federal law, a black powder firearm or a muzzleloader is consider an "antique firearm" and is excluded from the general felony firearms restriction.
However, it must only be a black powder or muzzleloader. It can't be a convertible firearm (e.g. Mossberg's 500).
Under Indiana law, you can possess a black powder/muzzleloader so long as your conviction is not one from a list of crimes.
Here is the statute with the list:
IC 35-47-4-5 Unlawful possession of firearm by serious violent felon Sec. 5. (a) As used in this section, "serious violent felon" means a person who has been convicted of: (1) committing a serious violent felony in: (A) Indiana; or (B) any other jurisdiction in which the elements of the crime for which the conviction was entered are substantially similar to the elements of a serious violent felony; or (2) attempting to commit or conspiring to commit a serious violent felony in:
(A) Indiana as provided under IC 35-41-5-1 or IC 35-41-5-2; or (B) any other jurisdiction in which the elements of the crime for which the conviction was entered are substantially similar to the elements of attempting to commit or conspiring to commit a serious violent felony. (b) As used in this section, "serious violent felony" means: (1) murder (IC 35-42-1-1); (2) voluntary manslaughter (IC 35-42-1-3); (3) reckless homicide not committed by means of a vehicle (IC 35-42-1-5); (4) battery as a: (A) Class A felony (IC 35-42-2-1(a)(5)); (B) Class B felony (IC 35-42-2-1(a)(4)); or (C) Class C felony (IC 35-42-2-1(a)(3)); (5) aggravated battery (IC 35-42-2-1.5); (6) kidnapping (IC 35-42-3-2); (7) criminal confinement (IC 35-42-3-3); (8) rape (IC 35-42-4-1); (9) criminal deviate conduct (IC 35-42-4-2); (10) child molesting (IC 35-42-4-3); (11) sexual battery as a Class C felony (IC 35-42-4-8); (12) robbery (IC 35-42-5-1); (13) carjacking (IC 35-42-5-2); (14) arson as a Class A felony or Class B felony (IC 35-43-1-1(a)); (15) burglary as a Class A felony or Class B felony (IC 35-43-2-1); (16) assisting a criminal as a Class C felony (IC 35-44-3-2); (17) resisting law enforcement as a Class B felony or Class C felony (IC 35-44-3-3); (18) escape as a Class B felony or Class C felony (IC 35-44-3-5); (19) trafficking with an inmate as a Class C felony (IC 35-44-3-9); (20) criminal gang intimidation (IC 35-45-9-4); (21) stalking as a Class B felony or Class C felony (IC 35-45-10-5); (22) incest (IC 35-46-1-3); (23) dealing in or manufacturing cocaine or a narcotic drug (IC 35-48-4-1); (24) dealing in methamphetamine (IC 35-48-4-1.1); (25) dealing in a schedule I, II, or III controlled substance (IC 35-48-4-2); (26) dealing in a schedule IV controlled substance (IC 35-48-4-3); or (27) dealing in a schedule V controlled substance (IC 35-48-4-4). (c) A serious violent felon who knowingly or intentionally possesses a firearm commits unlawful possession of a firearm by a serious violent felon, a Class B felony.
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