Good afternoon, thank you for your question. Sorry to hear about your circumstances.
Miranda warnings only need to be given to you if the police intend to interrogate you after you are in custody. If you were not questioned while in custody, then there was no need for a warning.
There is also no constitutional right to a phone call and the rules vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Some jails only let you a lawyer or family member to arrange bail, others will allow you to call a family member or friend, but in my experience, it's not unusual that you can only call within the area code of the jail. Normally, they also won't allow you to call anyone until you are booked.
It is alarming to think you were not told why you were being arrested. Disorderly conduct is a misdemeanor
in California, and can include everything from intoxication
to pan handling and peeping. It carries up to one year in jail and fines, though for a first offense, a conviction would generally result in probation/fines/court costs. You may also be offered if this is your first offense something called diversion/defered adjudication which is a program where if you successfully complete the probation terms, they dismiss the charge from your record, and then you can have the arrest and court record expunged.
While this is a minor charge, it would still be a misdemeanor on your record if your were convicted. And, there may be issues here I'm not aware of (I don't have any documents to look at, etc). You should consult with a criminal
defense lawyer about this matter. Many offer free or low cost initial consultations and they can answer many of the questions you probably have.
If you can't afford a private attorney, you may be able to get a public defender. A public defender is a licensed and qualified attorney just like any other, and can certainly handle matters of this nature. Your first court date is your arraignment, This is where the charges will be read and you will be asked to enter a plea. Plead not guilty and then the court will ask if you have an attorney. Tell the court you can't afford one and that you are requesting a public defender be appointed. Once you have entered your plea, the court will schedule the case for a later date.
Once you have a lawyer, they can speak to you about what happened, request any evidence that the state may have, and if necessary, enter into plea negotiations with the prosecutor to try and reduce the severity of the penalty.
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