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This is not likely a civil rights violation.
Police may question a juvenile at any time without parental consent or notification. If the questioning rises to the level of a custodial interrogation (a question of law) then the child must knowingly and voluntarily waive their constitutional rights (right to remain silent, attorney present, etc). Courts in Missouri have held that a minor cannot waive those rights knowingly and voluntarily without parental notification. See In re K.W.D. 500 S.W. 2d 275 (Mo. App. 973). However, the parent need not consent to the interview as long as the minor agrees to give a statement after being afforded a right to remain silent, counsel, and parental contact. State v. Barnaby, 950 S.W.2d 1 (Mo. App. 1997). The problem here is that a custodial interrogation is quite different than an interrogation or interview at school.
This is a separate issue from a 42 U.S.C. Section 1983 action for deprivation of civil rights, but since the police do have a recognized right to question a juvenile no civil rights violation exists. One could argue that the interview was custodial and at the direction of the police, but that would only lead to a potential suppression of the statement in a criminal proceeding. Nothing described here would indicate a potential 1983 claim.
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