My recommendation is to go into the Add/Remove Programs control panel and remove every instance of Adobe Reader that exists there.
Then lets use CCleaner to clean and remove the Acrobat installation. It will also clean any registry that might be in Windows Registry. www.ccleaner.com/
Once this complete lets go back and redownload Adobe and see if this corrects the problem.
In the meantime while we are troubleshooting this issue here is a simple solution would be to just use FoxIt2, a free, 3rd party replacement for Adobe Reader: http://www.foxitsoftware.com/
Ok lets try using the Windows Installer Cleanup Utility to remove the previous installations,
With the Windows Installer CleanUp Utility, you can remove a program's Windows Installer configuration information. You may want to remove the Windows Installer configuration information for your program if you experience installation (Setup) problems.
Now that it is completely removed, lets try to reinstall a clean version of this from the link below, and see if it will install correctly