I had the same problem with my HP All-in-one when I upgraded to Windows 2000 years ago. I had worked perfectly on Windows 98 until that point.
Visit your printer manufacturer's website and make sure you have the newest drivers. This fixed my issue.
Make sure the cable is properly connected at both ends.
The old cable was a USB1 cable and the new cable is USB2. USB2 is backwards compatible with USB1 devices, so the new cable shouldn't be an issue.
Since this is Windows Vista, it most likely is a driver issue. Whenever there is a new version of Windows, there are hardware incompatibilities that the hardware manufacturers must work through ... or decide not to work through.
There is a chance that the printer manufacturer has not updated the drivers for Vista yet. They generally start with their newest models first and work their way backwards. If your printer is too old, the manufacturer may not update the drivers for it at all.