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The function of protocols in a network and how each protocol

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The function of protocols in a network and how each protocol works in one or more layers of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model, why protocols are needed to enable computer communications, and describe common protocol suites.
Submitted: 3 years ago.
Category: Networking
Expert:  John replied 3 years ago.
Ritesh63, I'd be glad to help you with this question. I will get back with you later this evening with a response.
Expert:  John replied 3 years ago.
To answer your questions.

- The function of protocols
The function of protocols is to enable the exchange of information between computers or network devices using standards/rules. In other words, they use a certain format that both can understand so information can be exchanged.

- How each protocol works in one or more layers of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model
For a list of all network protocols and their respective layers and description, see wikipedia link below:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_network_protocols

- Why protocols are needed to enable computer communications
Network protocols are needed so that information can be exchanged between disparate systems. For example, a Mac and a PC can both use TCP/IP as their network protocol in order to exchange information.

- Describe common protocol suites
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol (Layer 4) - a connection-oriented, reliable delivery byte-stream transport layer communication protocol, currently documented in IETF RFC 793. Internet Protocol (Layer 3) - a data-oriented protocol used by source and destination hosts for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork.
IPX/SPX - Internetwork Packet Exchange (Layer 3) /Sequenced Packet Exchange (Layer 4) - IPX is a connectionless datagram protocol that delivers packets across the Internet and provides NetWare workstations and file servers with addressing and internetworking routing services. SPX is a transport layer protocol providing a packet delivery service for third party applications.

I would say these 2 are the most common protocol suites, however there are others.
Customer: replied 3 years ago.
Can you please explain how each protocol works in one or more layers of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. I read the wiki page you asked me to but it made little to no sense if you can explain one or two that would be greatly appricated
Expert:  John replied 3 years ago.
Take the TCP protocol that works in Layer 4 (Transport) for example. This protocol receives the data from the upper layers and divides them into segments. Each segment gets a TCP Header added to it (this contains origin, destination, checksum, options, etc.). This information then gets encapsulated into the next layer down, into an IP packet. The TCP Header format is the same everywhere so that the destination host can interpret the header and data the same way it was encapsulated by the origin host.

TCP is widely implemented for a number of reasons, but it is not used everywhere. See link below to why TCP is popular.
http://tutorials.beginners.co.uk/introducing-tcp-ip.htm
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Category: Networking
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Experience: 8+ years in IT; BS in Info. Systems; A+ and Network+
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