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Charge the new battery up for 6+ hours, before trying it again. After sitting upon a shelf for a while, a battery needs this one period of extended recharging to overcome polarization.
After that... if your charger has no sign of dirty or corroded contacts, broken-off or defective contacts, or strained/cut/severely bent/broken-looking wiring... then you may have defective charging circuitry in the phone, unfortunately.