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Hello,Thank you for using Just Answer. My name is***** am a veterinarian and will do my best to help.
I am sorry to hear about Awai. Thanks for adopting him, and giving him a chance.
Have you had a urinalysis done, to be sure he does not have crystals in his urine, an infection, or other urinary problem?
Is he the only cat in your house?
I would first do a urinalysis to rule out a physical problem. If that is normal, there are the things I would try:
Adding Cat Attract to his litter box; an herbal supplement. You could also try catnip.
Moving his food as far from the litter pans as possible.
Having at least two litter pans.
He may have been punished in the past for this behavior: "rubbing his nose in it", being spanked, and then being put harshly into the litter pan. This only creates fear of the litter pan, so training him to like the litter pan can be helpful: the catnip or Cat Attract, giving him treats and rewards for walking anywhere near the litter pan.
Sometimes we have to use anti anxiety medication such as amitriptyline, or Prozac.
I hope you were able to see my responses; I have not heard back from you. How is Awai doing?