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Yes, they do as most larger companies do. Whether they drug test prior to employment depends on the position and you can call human resource in order to find out if you need one for yours.
Some positions do have random testing every 30 days.
I was able to find out the same vague level of information on my own. Infact i read the same blurb you sent me. The position I am looking at is a "Service Delivery Management" position. Many large companies only drug test the rank and file when it comes to New Hires. This position is right on the cusp. From the research I did before reaching out to justanswer.com I found many blogs where current and former employees state they never had to take a drug test to gain employment at microsoft. The first time I found any suggestion that microsoft does indeed drug test is when I located the same blurb you sent me. I was hoping to find a more definitive answer with out having to ask the HR recruiter I am working with or make an anonymous call which most likely not yield an accurate answer.
The position I am looking at is in WA State if that helps
I will opt out and hopefully someone who works there can answer your answer.