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Kenny Z.
Kenny Z., ASE Master Tech
Category: Car
Satisfied Customers: 4837
Experience:  ASE Master Technician with L1 Advanced Drivability Level
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what is

Customer Question

what is Particulate Filters
• Purpose
• Operation
• Servicing procedures


what is Diesel Exhaust Fluid
• Purpose
• Operation
• Servicing procedures
Submitted: 2 years ago.
Category: Car
Expert:  Kenny Z. replied 2 years ago.
Hello and thanks for your question.

The catalyst and particulate filter assembly OC is a ceramic catalytic converter which oxidizes hydrocarbons in the exhaust and generates heat for DPF regeneration. The DPF is a highly engineered silicon carbide wall-flow catalyst that traps particulates. As soot gathers in the system it begins to restrict the filter and the filter needs to be periodically cleaned. The soot can be cleaned in 2 different ways: Passive regeneration and active regeneration. Both methods occur automatically and require no action from the driver/operator.

The selective reduction catalyst improves the exhaust emissions and fuel efficiency by injecting a reductant into the exhaust system. The reductant, also referred to as diesel exhaust fluid, is a 32.5% solution of urea in deionized water. At the inlet of the catalyst, there is a port for the reductant injector which is followed by a grate diffuser and a twist mixer. When the reductant is introduced into the system, it atomizes in the grate diffuser and mixes evenly with exhaust gases in the twist mixer. During this time, the heat of the exhaust gases causes the urea in the reductant to split into Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and ammonia. As the ammonia and NOx pass over the catalyst, a reduction reaction takes place and the ammonia and NOx are converted to nitrogen and water.

Passive Regeneration

Passive regeneration occurs naturally as a result of normal engine operating conditions. During passive regeneration, the exhaust constituents/temperature are at an appropriate level where some soot can be reduced or oxidized (burned) thus cleaning the filter.

Active Regeneration

Active regeneration, which is initiated by the PCM, will occur when there is not enough passive regeneration occurring due to vehicle drive patterns. In an active regeneration, the DPF is cleaned by raising the exhaust temperature to a point where the soot is burned away. After the soot is burned off, the exhaust temperature and back pressure (restriction) fall back to normal levels.

 

System Components

The reductant tank stores the reductant.

The reductant tank filler hose is a 2-piece design consisting of a filler hose and a vent hose.

The reductant pressure line supplies the reductant from the reductant pump assembly to the reductant injector. There are different reductant pressure lines for different vehicle wheelbases. The reductant pressure line is heated to prevent freezing.

The reductant pump assembly pumps reductant to the reductant injector. It contains a diaphragm pressure pump, pressure sensor, purge valve, outlet filter, and internal heating element.

The reductant heater and sender assembly contains the pickup tube for the reductant pump module, electric heating element, temperature sensor, and electrode-type level sensor.

The reductant injector is a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) solenoid controlled directly by the PCM. The injector receives reductant from the reductant pressure line and sprays it into the exhaust stream, where it is mixed into the exhaust gases before entering the catalyst.

The NOx sensor detects levels of NOx in exhaust gases and sends input to the NOx sensor module. For additional information, refer to Section 303-14B.

The NOx sensor module receives input from the NOx sensor and sends it to the PCM. For additional information, refer to Section 303-14B.

System Operation

The NOx sensor detects the level of NOx in the exhaust gas and sends that input to the NOx sensor module. The NOx sensor module sends that input to the PCM which commands a reductant injection. The reductant injector opens and the reductant pump operates, filling the reductant pressure line and the reductant injector to purge the air out of the system. When all of the air is purged, the reductant injector closes, allowing the reductant pump pressure to build to 500 kPa (73 psi). With the system fully primed, the reductant injector provides the reductant to the catalyst as commanded by the PCM. The catalyst contains a copper catalyst washcoated on a zeolite substrate. At the inlet of the catalyst is a port for the reductant injector, followed by a grate diffuser and a twist mixer. When the reductant is introduced into the system, it atomizes in the grate diffuser and mixes evenly with exhaust gases in the twist mixer. During this time, the heat of the exhaust gases causes the urea in the reductant to split into Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and ammonia. As the ammonia and NOx pass over the catalyst, a reduction reaction takes place and the ammonia and NOx are converted to nitrogen and water. This reaction takes place at up to 95% efficiency, allowing the engine to run leaner and more efficiently. The high levels of NOx that are produced under lean conditions are now eliminated.

The PCM commands the Glow Plug Control Module (GPCM) to provide voltage to the reductant pump assembly internal heating element, reductant pressure line heater and the reductant heater and sender assembly when the reductant temperature approaches its freezing point of -11°C (12°F). The reductant heater and sender assembly heating element is located directly above the pickup tube inlet filter. When the reductant heater and sender assembly temperature sensor detects the reductant temperature dropping to its freezing point, the reductant heater and sender assembly heating element thaws and maintains a pool of liquid reductant within the reductant heater and sender assembly reservoir.

The reductant heater and sender assembly level sensor incorporates four stainless steel electrodes. Three electrodes arranged vertically provide a high, middle, and low level signal and the fourth electrode runs the length of the level sensor and acts as a ground. The reductant is a good conductor of electricity. When the reductant tank is full, the reductant closes a circuit between all three level electrodes and the ground electrode, indicating the tank is full. As the reductant is consumed, the level drops and uncovers each electrode in sequence. The PCM calculates the reductant level based on these signals.

When the vehicle is shut down, the PCM closes the reductant injector and actuates the reductant pump purge valve, causing the reductant pump to reverse the pump flow and bleed down the pressure from the reductant pressure line. The PCM then opens the reductant injector to allow air to enter the reductant pressure line, which in turn allows the reductant pump to purge all remaining reductant from the system and return it to the reductant tank. The PCM then closes the reductant injector and returns the reductant pump purge valve to the forward pump position.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
so what is Particulate Filters
  • Purpose

  • Operation
  • Servicing procedures
Expert:  Kenny Z. replied 2 years ago.
Its all right there. The DPF or diesel particulate filter is part of the catalyst system. Its not a filter that is changed or serviced, it is regenerated as described. There is no service for it unless the entire unit failed then the catalyst and DPF is replaced as an assembly.
Kenny Z., ASE Master Tech
Category: Car
Satisfied Customers: 4837
Experience: ASE Master Technician with L1 Advanced Drivability Level
Kenny Z. and 21 other Car Specialists are ready to help you
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
can hlep make more clearly?~which answer is for what is Particulate Filters
  • Purpose

  • Operation
  • Servicing procedures

&which one is for what is Diesel Exhaust Fluid

  • Purpose

  • Operation

• Servicing procedures

 

Expert:  Kenny Z. replied 2 years ago.
They work in tandem. The diesel exhaust fluid is referred to as reductant. They cannot be explained separately the two items together make up the particulate filter. I can't think of a better description then what is posted above.
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
so do u have some website link?
Expert:  Kenny Z. replied 2 years ago.
The website is private, no public access.
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
okay do u know which emission(s) the system controls
  • how the emissions are formed

  • how the emission(s) are controlled

i will add bouns for you

Expert:  Kenny Z. replied 2 years ago.
I will get back to you this evening.
Expert:  Kenny Z. replied 2 years ago.
The emissions that are formed are Nox, Ammonia and CO2. They are formed as a result of diesel fuel combustion. The combination of the DPF filter, the reductant and the catalytic converter and heat cause these 3 compounds to be changed to nitrogen and water.

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