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For the speedometer to work you need the VSS (vehicle speed sensor). For the transmission shift controls to function properly the computer needs input from several sources and and the VSS is an important one.
Test and replace the VSS. Won't cost a fortune.
Good job finding the blown fuse and I should of mentioned this but didn't. Unfortunately we don't see many defective fuses. It does happen but more often something caused the fuse to blow (doing it's job to protect circuit damage and the risk of fire).
The problem may mask itself indefinitely. It could of been a one time glitch or short. There could be a component that is on the threshold of using to much current but never happens to cross the threshold of the new fuse.
Did the check engine light ever come on with the engine running?