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These are excellent questions but not at all basic. Immigration law is very complex.
What you would do is apply to the university and once you receive your offer of enrolment you would apply for the study permit.
When you are inside of Canada and have been here for at least six months you can apply for what is called an off-campus work permit which will allow you to work for anyone for up to 20 hours per week.
If you want to apply for permanent residency then you will be able to apply under the Canada Experience Class which will is for those who either work or study in Canada.
After you get your degree you will be able to get a post-graduate work permit and will be able to work in your chosen field.
After you do that you can apply for permanent residency status.
Here is a link to the information you will need about the Canada Experience Class:
http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/cec/apply-who.aspOne concern I have is that I want you to understand that the law in Canada especially with respect to immigration is constantly changing so you really should keep coming back to the Canada Immigration site over the years and at some point consult with an immigration lawyer either when you are still back home over the phone or face to face when you get to Canada.
You do not have to work when you are studying. Generally, universities don't recommend that because you need to study. I was just explaining that you could.
The post graduate work permit allows you to work in your chosen field for at least one year after graduating but has nothing to do with your permanent residency status.
The CEC application process is to get your PR status and you need work experience that you would get through the post-graduate work permit first.
There are no guarantees and the law changes all the time. Just before now your studying in Canada and then having some work experience was required or else a lot of work experience. Now this has changed and only work experience matters for the most part.
The specific fields change all the time.
This is why you need to keep following up and likely as you an afford it should consult with an immigration lawyer face to face when you arrive in Canada.
I don't know the law any other jurisdiction but Canada so you will need to ask someone where you live for that information.