California Employment Law
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Unfortunately, employers have absolute discretion when it comes to scheduling and can schedule their employees in whatever manner suits the needs of their business. The only exception would be if the employer and employee entered into an express agreement providing a set schedule for a guaranteed period of time. In the absence of such agreement, employment is "at will" and thus terminable or subject to a change in terms at any time for virtually any reason.
An employee's sole leverage in this circumstance is the threat that they will leave the employment and exercise their "at will" right to terminate the employment relationship. You can take a stand against this schedule change and explain how you will be forced to leave if you are required to accept it, but if your employer wants to call your bluff they can replace you or simply insist on the change anyway.
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Thank you for your reply. I'm not sure why your question was classified into the CA employment section but I did see that you indicated you are in MA and my answer was based on MA, not CA law.
Your entitlement to unemployment would depend on whether you had good cause to refuse the schedule change. Good casue is judged on a case by case basis and so it is impossible to predict results, but the question that will be examined is whether you did everything a reasonable person would have done to remain employed. So, for example, if you didn't want to adopt the new schedule because you engage in a recreational softball league on the day you are now being asked to work that probably would not constitute good cause because a reasonable person would have prioritized work over their recreational commitments. But if your reason is due to child care obligations, that reason would likely be regarded as something that would cause a reasonable person genuinely desirous of remaining employed to refuse the change. Again, this is judged on a case by case basis so it is impossible to predict results. Hopefully this gives you a good idea how things are judged, though.
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Very best wishes.