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I think it would be helpful if I address your concerns by providing a concise summary of the applicable rights and protections afforded to pregnant employees in the state of California.
First, Califonria's Pregnancy Disability Leave Law (PDLL), entitles pregnant women working at companies with 5 or more total employees to up to 4 months of protected job leave due to pregnancy-related disability (i.e. as a result of your pregnancy you are physically incapable of working). It is important to understand that PDLL provides job protection while you are disabled as a result of pregnancy--it doesn't provide any sort of wage replacement when you are gone. PDLL can, however, apply to post-partum depression or other dibilitating medical or mental conditions which arise as a result of birth, so it is not necessarily confined to the pregnancy time period itself.
In addition to PDLL, pregnant employees working at companies of 50 or more employees are entitled to take "baby bonding leave" under the California Family Rights Act. Baby bonding leave doesn't require a showing of "disability"--it is protected job leave, just like PDLL, for an additional 12 weeks after birth. Again, though, PDLL is only available if you work at a company with 50 or more employees. Less than that and you have no entitlement to baby bonding leave.
With regard to wage replacement, California's Paid Family Leave permits employees to obtain up to 6 weeks of partial wage replacement while they are out on pregnancy leave. In order to be eligible for Paid Family Leave, the employee must have contributed to the State Disabilty Fund (SDI), which virtually all employees do. There is a 7 day waiting period for PFL to kick in. See here for more information: http://www.edd.ca.gov/disability/FAQ_PFL_Benefits.htm
Paid Family Leave and PDLL run concurrently, so PDLL will protect your job while PFL will provide you with wage replacement while you are gone. CFRA baby bonding leave is in addition to PDLL--they DON'T run concurrently.
With regard to your other questions, employees do not need to pay employers or the state back for wage replacement they receive while absent from work due to their pregnancy. It is also illegla to discriminate against employees on the basis of pregnancy. This is a form of gender discrimination and employers cannot disqualify applicants for a job on the basis of pregnancy or anticipated pregnancy.
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