California Employment Law
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It's hard to prove that she's being discriminated based on those protected characteristics as her coworker who's harassing has not openly made comments to that effect.
She has already taken the complaint to her employer (both her direct manager and the HR department), both of which have not done anything. She even had reported a specific violation of union rules committed by her coworker against my mom and again, HR did nothing to reprimand the coworker.
What are steps she can take to start building a case for any harassment and/or bullying incidents (in addition to just documenting these incidents)?