Thank you very much for your reply. Don't worry about your communication efforts, I am more than happy to work with you until things are absolutely clear. I am going to respond based on what I think you are asking and you can follow up with more questions if need be.
With regard to your employer getting back in touch with you and reinstating you in your position, there is regretfully no law which requires your employer to do these things. The only law which requires an employer to hold a sick or disabled employee's position is the Family Medical Leave Act. The "FMLA" only applies to certain employees at companies with 50 or more workers. However, even assuming that the FMLA did apply, the FMLA only protects an employee's job for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the employer can fire the employee even if the employee is still unable to return to work.
An employee in your circumstance who has been off work for 10 months would regretfully have no claim for violation of the FMLA because you did not return within the 12 week period in which your job would have been protected. Since after 12 weeks your employment is subject to termination, and since termination can be effected simply by refusing to get back in touch with you, your employer is free to ignore your communications regarding reinstatement, however unfair and unprofessional this is. There is simply no law requiring to the contrary.
I think the above is responsive to your question, but it may be that you are asking how long you have to wait after your first attempt to contact your employer before you can assume you are terminated and thus apply for unemployment benefits. If this is what you are asking, the answer is that there is no set period of time. Provided it is reasonably clear that employment will not continue, as is the case since you are being ignored, you can apply for unemployment benefits. Your employer will be notified, and they can either choose to permit the claim or hire you back, in which case your claim for unemployment benefits will be extinguished.
For information on how to file a claim for unemployment benefits with the EDD, visit this link: http://www.edd.ca.gov/unemployment/filing_a_claim.htm
I hope that this addresses your concerns, and I am truly sorry to the extent that the news I am providing is not favorable to your situation. I trust, however, that you can understand my limitations in explaining how the law actually operates under the circumstances and realize that it would be terribly unfair to you and unprofssional of me to lead you on with false but more favorable information.
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Very best wishes to you and thank you so much for coming to Just Answer.