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This does not constitute workplace violence, which typically requires a physical touching to rise to that level.
It is harassing conduct, but it would normally not be actionable harassment as defined under the law because of where you work and the fact the conduct is not be directed at you by the employer or a co-worker.
Because you work in a correctional facility, racial and other comments by inmates would typically be a hazard of the job. It does not indicate an intent to discriminate against you by your employer, which is typically necessary to bring an action for harassment against the employer based on race, gender, age, or other protected status.
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