How JustAnswer Works:

  • Ask an Expert
    Experts are full of valuable knowledge and are ready to help with any question. Credentials confirmed by a Fortune 500 verification firm.
  • Get a Professional Answer
    Via email, text message, or notification as you wait on our site.
    Ask follow up questions if you need to.
  • 100% Satisfaction Guarantee
    Rate the answer you receive.

Ask Richard Your Own Question

Richard
Richard, Attorney
Category: Business Law
Satisfied Customers: 45924
Experience:  32 years of experience practicing law and a businessman.
17027240
Type Your Business Law Question Here...
Richard is online now
A new question is answered every 9 seconds

I have just received a collection notice from a law company

Customer Question

I have just received a collection notice from a law company saying I owe 4,122.00 USD for target credit card debt. my only income is 546.00 disability and 205.00 social sec supplemental per month (751.00/month). 4 years ago, I wanted to declare bankruptcy. 2 lawyers told me it would cost a min. of 1200.00 to file. when I told them my only income was gov. disability and SSI, they said to forget about it because a collector cannot get a judgement against gov. funds. this letter states they will go after property. all I own of value is my car which I bought in march 2013 with a loan from my father. does he need to file a lien? we are trying to keep my car. he will not take ownership of it. please advise. thank you, patrice
Submitted: 1 year ago.
Category: Business Law
Expert:  Richard replied 1 year ago.
Welcome! My goal is to do my very best to understand your situation and to provide a full and complete answer for you.

Good morning. Can you tell me the age of this debt? When is the last time you made a payment? Thank you!
Customer: replied 1 year ago.


3569.66 plus 6 months interest and fees since last payment but they don't give a date. i'm thinking it was 4 years ago, maybe 3.

Expert:  Richard replied 1 year ago.
Thanks so much for following up. Iowa has a 5 year statute of limitations on credit card debt so the creditor does still have the right to pursue this. And, if you owe the money, they could get a judgment against you. BUT, getting a judgment and collecting a judgment are two different things. Even if they go to the time and expense of getting a judgment against you, it will be uncollectible. That's because your social security and disability are exempt and they cannot touch it...either by attempting to garnish it or by trying to levy your bank account after it's been received. With regard to your car, you want your dad to file a UCC-1 with the Secretary of State indicating his loan is secured by a lien on the car. That will prevent them from touching the car. Then, if that's all you have, then they will simply have an uncollectible judgment. You could file for bankruptcy protection and get this judgment discharged, but you don't need to do so. In the meantime, what you would want to do it contact them and let them know your solution. Whether or not they will actually pursue this to a hearing depends upon their assessment of the collectibility of a deficiency judgment. So, if you can convince them there is nothing for them to get, and that if they were to pursue a judgment, you would simply file for bankruptcy protection and get the judgment discharged—and even if you have no intention of doing so, it is still good leverage with the bank because they do not know whether or not you would… then it is unlikely the lender will spend the time and money necessary to get a judgment they believe is uncollectible in the end.




Thank you so much for allowing me to help you with your questions. I have done my best to provide information which will be helpful to you. If I have not fully addressed your questions or if you have any follow up questions, or if I have misinterpreted your questions in any way, please do not rate me yet, but simply ask a follow up question without rating so I can provide you with a fully satisfactory answer. If I have fully answered your question(s) to your satisfaction, I would appreciate you rating my service with 3, 4, or 5 faces/stars so I can receive credit for helping you today. I thank you in advance for taking the time to provide me a positive rating!

Customer: replied 1 year ago.


thanks. I need more info: my dad lives in Duluth, MN. does he file a lien up there? or what if we just write up a loan agreement legally? what is a lien vs a loan?

Expert:  Richard replied 1 year ago.
You're welcome. He should file the UCC-1 in both his state and your state. A promissory note (i.e., the loan agreement) provides the terms of the loan, but unless there is a security agreement, the note is unsecured and the lender has no lien on any particular property. The UCC-1 and security agreement is what gives your dad the lien on the car. If you need it, I can provide you a form for the note and the security agreement. Just let me know.
Customer: replied 1 year ago.

ok. thanks. first, are these forms free? I am almost out of money. 2nd, can you please email me your answers? I do not have a printer. I have memory impairment and will need to look at the email/answer in order to talk to the collecter. also. CCU-I form to sec. of state? Hilary Clinton? sorry i'm so stupid about this.

Expert:  Richard replied 1 year ago.
You're welcome...it's my pleasure to help. I'll provide these forms for no additional charge. :) I'm not allowed to email, but if you go to the bottom right of your original question box, and hover over it with your mouse, one of the options is email. Each state's secretary of state's website will have their own UCC-1 that you can complete and file online. Hillary Clinton is the U.S. Secretary of State. Each state has it's own Secretary of State website which you can find by googling your state name and "Secretary of State." The forms are below...






PROMISSORY NOTE


Date: ________________________

Borrower: ________________________

Borrower’s Mailing Address: ___________________
___________________

Lender: _______________________

Place for Payment: _____________________
_____________________

Principal Amount: ______________________

Annual Interest Rate:

A per annum rate equal to the lesser of: (i) __%, or (ii) the Maximum Rate (as hereinafter defined) with interest to be calculated on a 365 or 366 day year, as applicable.

Maturity Date: ___________________

Annual Interest Rate on Matured, Unpaid Amounts:

The lesser of: (i) the maximum per annum rate of interest permitted by applicable law (the “Maximum Rate”) or (ii) 10% per annum. For purposes hereof and _________ law, the Maximum Rate shall be the weekly ceiling rate as provided in the applicable sections of the _________ Finance Code, as currently in force and as same may be amended from time to time.

Terms of Payment:

The Principal Amount and all outstanding and all accrued unpaid interest thereon shall be due and payable in full on the Maturity Date.


Borrower promises to pay to the order of Lender the Principal Amount, together with interest on the outstanding Principal Amount from day to day remaining unpaid at the Annual Interest Rate. This Note is payable at the Place for Payment and according to the Terms of Payment. All unpaid amounts are due by the Maturity Date. After the Maturity Date, Borrower promises to pay any unpaid principal balance plus interest at the Annual Interest Rate on Matured, Unpaid Amounts. This Note may be prepaid at any time, in whole or in part, without penalty or other charge.


If Borrower shall fail, refuse or neglect to pay, or cause the payment of all sums due and payable under this Note, or under any instrument relating to or securing the payment of this Note, as the same shall become due and payable and such failure is not cured within five (5) days after receipt by Borrower of written notice from Lender of such failure, then Lender shall have the option, to the extent permit¬ted by applicable law, to declare this Note due and payable, whereupon the entire unpaid principal balance of this Note and all accrued unpaid interest thereon shall thereupon at once mature and become due and payable without presentment, demand, protest or notice of any kind (including, but not limited to, notice of intention to accelerate or notice of acceleration), all of which are hereby expressly waived by Borrower.

Borrower also promises to pay collection fees and the reasonable attorneys’ fees of Lender, in addition to all other amounts owing hereunder.

It is the intention of the parties hereto to comply with applicable usury laws; accordingly, it is agreed that notwith¬standing any provisions to the contrary in this Note, or in any document securing payment hereof or otherwise relating hereto, in no event shall this Note or such documents require the payment or permit the collection of interest in excess of the maximum amount permitted by such laws. If any such excess of interest is contracted for, charged or received, under this Note or under any of the instruments securing payment hereof or other¬wise relating hereto, or in the event the maturity of the indebt¬edness evidenced by this Note is accelerated in whole or in part, or in the event that all or part of the principal or interest of this Note shall be prepaid, so that under any of such circumstanc¬es the amount of interest contracted for, charged or received under this Note or under any of the instruments securing payment hereof or otherwise relating hereto, on the amount of principal actually outstanding from time to time under this Note, shall exceed the maximum amount of interest permitted by applicable usury laws, then in any such event (a) the provisions of this paragraph shall govern and control, (b) neither the Borrower hereof nor any other person or entity now or hereafter liable for the payment hereof shall be obligated to pay the amount of such interest to the extent that it is in excess of the maximum amount of interest permitted by applicable usury laws, (c) any such excess which may have been collected shall be either applied as a credit against the then unpaid principal amount hereof (in the inverse order of maturity) or refunded to Borrower, at the holder’s option, and (d) the effective rate of interest shall be automati¬cally reduced to the maximum lawful contract rate allowed under applicable usury laws as now or hereafter construed by the courts having jurisdiction thereof. It is further agreed that without limitation of the foregoing, all calculations of the rate of interest contracted for, charged or received under this Note or under such other documents which are made for the purposes of determining whether such rate exceeds the maximum lawful contract rate, shall be made, to the extent permitted by applicable laws, by amortizing, prorating, allocating and spreading in equal parts during the period of the full stated term of the loan evidenced hereby, all interest at any time contracted for, charged or received from Borrower or otherwise by the holder or holders hereof in connection with such loan.

This Note shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of _________ and applicable federal laws, and is intended to be performed in accordance with, and only to the extent permitted by, such laws. If any provision of this Note or the application hereof to any person or circumstance shall, for any reason and to any extent, be invalid or unenforceable, neither the remainder of this Note nor the application of such provision to any other person or circumstance shall be affected thereby, but rather same shall be enforced to the greatest extent permitted by law.

Any notice or request required or permitted to be delivered to Borrower or Lender by the terms of this Note shall be in writing and deemed to be received, whether or not actually received, three(3) business days after deposit of such notice in the U.S. Mail, postage prepaid, certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, addressed to Borrower or Lender, as the case may be, at the addresses set forth above, or at such other address as Borrower or Lender may specify in writing to the other party in accordance herewith. Notwithstanding the foregoing, actual notice, however received, shall be always be effective upon receipt thereof.


Borrower: ___________________







SECURITY AGREEMENT - PLEDGE
¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬__________________, a ____________________, whose address is ____________________________, hereinafter called “Debtor,” for value received, the receipt and sufficiency of which is hereby acknowledged, hereby grants to ________________________, whose address is __________________________________, herein¬after called “Secured Party,” the security interest hereinafter set forth and agrees with Secured Party as follows:
I. SECURITY INTEREST
Debtor hereby grants to Secured Party a security interest in and agrees and acknowledges that Secured Party has and shall continue to have a security interest in the following described property, to-wit:
[Description of Property being given as security]
together with all monies, income, proceeds and benefits attributable or accruing to said property, including, but not limited to, all partnership rights, rights to subscribe, liquidating distributions, property, cash distributions, new securities or other properties or benefits of which Debtor is or may hereafter become entitled to receive on account of said property, and in the event that Debtor shall receive any such items, Debtor shall hold same as Trustee for Secured Party and will immediately deliver same to Secured Party, to be held by Secured Party in the same manner as the property specifically described above is held hereunder. All property of all kinds in which Secured Party is herein granted a security interest shall hereinafter be called the “Collateral.” The undersigned agrees to execute such assignments, endorse such instruments, or execute such additional pledge agreements or other docu¬ments as may be required by Secured Party in order to effectively grant to Secured Party the security interest in the Collateral.
The security interest granted hereby is to secure the payment of any and all indebtedness and liabilities whatsoever of ______________________, a _____________ limited partnership (“Borrower”), to Secured Party whether direct or indirect, absolute or contingent, due or to become due, and whether now existing or hereafter arising and howsoever evidenced or acquired, and whether joint or several (all of which are hereinafter sometimes called the “Obligations”).
II. WARRANTIES AND COVENANTS OF DEBTOR
Debtor warrants, covenants and agrees that:
(1) Except for the security interest granted hereby, Debtor is the owner of the Collateral free of any adverse claim, security interest or encumbrance; and Debtor will defend the Collateral against all claims and demands of all persons at any time claiming the same or interest therein;
(2) Debtor authorizes Secured Party to file, in jurisdictions where this authorization will be given effect, a Financing Statement signed only by Secured Party covering the Collateral; and at the request of Secured Party, Debtor will join Secured Party in executing one or more Financing Statements pursuant to the Uniform Commercial Code, in form satisfactory to Secured Party, and will pay the cost of filing the same or filing or recording the Security Agreement in all public offices wherever filing or recording is deemed by Secured Party to be necessary or desirable, it being further stipulated in this regard that Secured Party may also at any time or times sign any counterpart of this Security Agreement signed by Debtor and file same as a Financing Statement if Secured Party shall elect to do so;
(3) Debtor will not sell or offer to sell or otherwise transfer or encumber the Collateral or any interest therein without the written consent of Secured Party;
(4) Debtor will keep the Collateral free from any adverse lien, security interest or encumbrances;
(5) Debtor will pay to Secured Party all expenses and expenditures, including reason-able attorneys’ fees and legal expenses, incurred or paid by Secured Party in exercising or protecting its interests, rights and remedies under this Security Agreement.
III. GENERAL COVENANTS
(1) The security interest granted hereby shall in no way be affected by any indulgence or indulgences, extension or extensions, change or changes in the form, evidence, maturity, rate of interest or otherwise of any of the Obligations hereby secured, nor by want of presentment, notice, protest, suit or indulgence upon any of such Obligations, nor shall any release of any security for or of any of the parties liable for the payment of any of the Obligations secured hereby in any manner affect or impair this pledge, and same shall continue in full force and effect in accordance with the terms until all of the Obligations have been fully paid.
(2) Secured Party shall have the power to endorse and is hereby appointed Debtor’s agent for the purpose of endorsing in the name of Debtor any instrument, assignment or document consti¬tuting Collateral or which may be received in payment of or on account of the Collateral.
IV. EVENTS OF DEFAULT
Debtor shall be in default under this Security Agreement upon the happening of any of the following events or conditions:
(1) Default in the payment or performance of any liability or obligation of Borrower or of any maker, endorser or guarantor of any liability or obligation of Borrower to the holder of the Obligations, including, but not by way of limitation, default in the payment of any principal or interest on any of the Obligations when due;
(2) The levy of any attachment, execution or other process against Debtor or any of the Collateral;
(3) Dissolution, termination of existence, insolvency or business failure of Debtor, Borrower or any endorser, guarantor or surety of any of the Obligations, or the commission of the act of bankruptcy by, or the appointment of receiver or other legal representative for any part of the property of, assignment for the benefit of creditors by, or the commencement of any pro-ceedings under any bankruptcy or insolvency law by or against, Debtor, Borrower or any endorser, guaran¬tor or surety for any of the Obligations; or
(4) Default in the performance of any other covenant or agreement of Debtor or Borrower to Secured Party, whether under this Security Agreement or otherwise.
V. REMEDIES
In the event of the default in the payment of any of the Obligations or any principal, interest or other amount payable thereunder, when due, or upon the happening of any of the events of default specified herein, and at any time thereafter, at the option of the holder thereof, any or all of the Obligations shall become immediately due and payable without presentment or demand or any notice to Debtor or any other person obli¬gated thereon and Secured Party shall have and may exercise with reference to the Collateral and Obligations any and all of the rights and remedies of a secured party under the Uniform Commercial Code as adopted in the State of _____________, and as otherwise granted herein or under any other applicable law or under any other agreement executed by Debtor, including, without limita¬tion, the right and power to sell, at public or private sale or sales, or otherwise dispose of or utilize the Collateral and any part or parts thereof in any manner authorized or permitted under this Security Agreement or under the Uniform Commercial Code after default by Debtor, and to apply the proceeds thereof toward payment of any costs and expenses and attorneys’ fees and legal expenses thereby incurred by Secured Party and toward payment of the Obligations, in such order or manner as Secured Party may elect. To the extent permitted by law, Debtor expressly waives any notice of sale or other disposition of the Collateral and any other rights or remedies of Debtor or formalities prescribed by law relative to sale or disposition of the Collateral or exercise of any other right or remedy of Secured Party existing after default hereunder; and to the extent any such notice is required and cannot be waived, Debtor agrees that if such notice is mailed, postage prepaid, to Debtor at the address shown hereinabove at least ten (10) days before the time of the sale or disposition, such notice shall be deemed reasonable and shall fully satisfy any requirement for giving of said notice.
Secured Party is hereby granted the right, after default in payment of any of the Obligations or in the performance of any covenants secured hereby, to transfer at any time to itself or its nominee the partnership interests hereby pledged, or any part thereof, and to there-after exercise all voting rights with respect to such security so trans¬ferred and to receive the proceeds, payments, moneys, income or benefits attributable or accruing thereto and to hold the same as security for the Obligations hereby secured, or at Secured Party’s election, to apply such amounts to the Obligations, whether or not then due, in such order as Secured Party may elect, or, Secured Party may, at its option, without transferring such partner¬ship interests to its nominee, exercise all voting rights with respect to the partnership interests pledged here¬under and vote all or any part of such partnership interests at any meeting of partners, and the under¬signed does hereby name, constitute and appoint as a proxy of the undersigned the President or any Vice President of Secured Party, in the undersigned’s name, place and stead to vote any and all such partnership interests, as said proxy may elect, for and in the name, place and stead of the undersigned, such proxy to be irrevocable and deemed coupled with an interest.
Debtor hereby agrees to cooperate fully with Secured Party in order to permit Secured Party to sell, at foreclosure or other private sale, the Collateral pledged hereunder. Specifically, Debtor agrees to fully comply with the Securities Laws of the United States and of the State of _____________ and to take such action as may be necessary to permit Secured Party to sell or otherwise transfer the securities pledged hereunder in compliance with such laws.
VI. MISCELLANEOUS
Secured Party may, at its option, whether or not the Obligations are due, demand, sue for, collect or make any compromise or settlement it deems desirable with reference to the Collateral. Secured Party shall not be obligated to take any steps necessary to preserve any rights in the Collateral against prior parties, which Debtor hereby assumes to do.
No delay or omission on the part of Secured Party in exercising any rights hereunder shall operate as a waiver of any such right or any other right. A waiver on any one or more occa¬sions shall not be construed as a bar to or waiver of any right or remedy on any future occasion.
It is the intention of the parties hereto to comply with the usury laws of the State of _____________; accordingly, it is agreed that notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in the Security Agreement, or in any of the documents evidencing the Obligations or otherwise relating thereto, no such provision shall require the payment or permit the collection of interest in excess of the maximum permitted by law. If any excess of interest in such respect is provided for, or shall be adjudicated to be so provided for, in this Security Agreement, or in any of the documents evi¬dencing the Obligations or otherwise relating thereto, then in such event (a) the provisions of this paragraph shall govern and control, (b) neither Debtor hereof nor his heirs, legal representatives, successors or assigns or any other party liable for the payment hereof, shall be obligated to pay the amount of such interest to the extent that it is in excess of the maximum amount permitted by law, (c) any such excess which may have been collected shall be, at the option of the holder of the instrument evidencing the Obligations, either applied as a credit against the then unpaid prin¬cipal amount thereof or refunded to the Maker thereof, and (d) the effective rate of interest shall be automatically subject to reduction to the maximum lawful contract rate allowed under the usury laws of the State of _____________ as now or hereafter construed by the courts having jurisdiction.
Debtor hereby covenants and agrees that in the event of default by Debtor (an event of default shall be any one of those events of default stated above) that Secured Party shall have the absolute and unconditional right, without the prior notice and/or any prior hearing of any kind whatsoever, to seize and take possession of the Collateral, and furthermore Debtor does hereby expressly waive any right to any prior notice and/or any prior hearing prior to seizure and taking possession of the Collateral and/or property by Secured Party in the event of default by Debtor.
All rights of Secured Party hereunder shall inure to the benefit of its successors and assigns; and all obligations of Debtor shall bind his heirs, executors or administrators and his or its successors or assigns. The rights and remedies of Secured Party hereunder are cumulative, and the exercise of any one or more of the remedies provided herein shall not be construed as a waiver of any of the other remedies of Secured Party.
Any provision found to be invalid under the laws of the State of _____________, or any other state having jurisdiction, shall be invalid only with respect to the offending provision. All words used herein shall be construed of such gender or number as the circumstances require. If this Security Agreement is executed by more than one debtor, the Obligations of all such debtors shall be joint and several. The law of the State of _____________ shall apply to this Security Agreement and its con¬struction and interpretation.
EXECUTED on this ____ day of _______, ____.
“DEBTOR”:

___________________________

Richard, Attorney
Category: Business Law
Satisfied Customers: 45924
Experience: 32 years of experience practicing law and a businessman.
Richard and 6 other Business Law Specialists are ready to help you
Expert:  Richard replied 1 year ago.
Thank you so much for the positive rating! I appreciate having had the opportunity to serve you! If I can be of assistance to you in the future, just look me up and I will be happy to help! For easy access, my bookmark is: http://www.justanswer.com/law/expert-legalbeacon/
Expert:  Richard replied 1 year ago.
Thank you also for the bonus! I appreciate your kindness!

JustAnswer in the News:

 
 
 
Ask-a-doc Web sites: If you've got a quick question, you can try to get an answer from sites that say they have various specialists on hand to give quick answers... Justanswer.com.
JustAnswer.com...has seen a spike since October in legal questions from readers about layoffs, unemployment and severance.
Web sites like justanswer.com/legal
...leave nothing to chance.
Traffic on JustAnswer rose 14 percent...and had nearly 400,000 page views in 30 days...inquiries related to stress, high blood pressure, drinking and heart pain jumped 33 percent.
Tory Johnson, GMA Workplace Contributor, discusses work-from-home jobs, such as JustAnswer in which verified Experts answer people’s questions.
I will tell you that...the things you have to go through to be an Expert are quite rigorous.
 
 
 

What Customers are Saying:

 
 
 
  • Mr. Kaplun clearly had an exceptional understanding of the issue and was able to explain it concisely. I would recommend JustAnswer to anyone. Great service that lives up to its promises! Gary B. Edmond, OK
< Last | Next >
  • Mr. Kaplun clearly had an exceptional understanding of the issue and was able to explain it concisely. I would recommend JustAnswer to anyone. Great service that lives up to its promises! Gary B. Edmond, OK
  • My Expert was fast and seemed to have the answer to my taser question at the tips of her fingers. Communication was excellent. I left feeling confident in her answer. Eric Redwood City, CA
  • I am very pleased with JustAnswer as a place to go for divorce or criminal law knowledge and insight. Michael Wichita, KS
  • PaulMJD helped me with questions I had regarding an urgent legal matter. His answers were excellent. Three H. Houston, TX
  • Anne was extremely helpful. Her information put me in the right direction for action that kept me legal, possible saving me a ton of money in the future. Thank you again, Anne!! Elaine Atlanta, GA
  • It worked great. I had the facts and I presented them to my ex-landlord and she folded and returned my deposit. The 50 bucks I spent with you solved my problem. Tony Apopka, FL
  • Wonderful service, prompt, efficient, and accurate. Couldn't have asked for more. I cannot thank you enough for your help. Mary C. Freshfield, Liverpool, UK
 
 
 

Meet The Experts:

 
 
 
  • Law Pro

    Attorney

    Satisfied Customers:

    1426
    20 years experience in business law - sole proprietor, partnership, and corporations
< Last | Next >
  • http://ww2.justanswer.com/uploads/LA/lawpro/2012-6-25_171315_PT206740s.64x64.jpg Law Pro's Avatar

    Law Pro

    Attorney

    Satisfied Customers:

    1426
    20 years experience in business law - sole proprietor, partnership, and corporations
  • http://ww2.justanswer.com/uploads/DC/DCraneEsq/2012-8-14_14436_DCrane.64x64.jpg MShore Law's Avatar

    MShore Law

    Attorney

    Satisfied Customers:

    1233
    Drafted Negotiated and/or Reviewed Thousands of Commercial Agreements
  • http://ww2.justanswer.com/uploads/FL/FLAandNYLawyer/2012-1-27_14349_3Fotolia25855429M.64x64.jpg FiveStarLaw's Avatar

    FiveStarLaw

    Attorney

    Satisfied Customers:

    1162
    25 years of experience helping people like you.
  • http://ww2.justanswer.com/uploads/dkaplun/2009-05-17_173121_headshot_1_2.jpg Dimitry K., Esq.'s Avatar

    Dimitry K., Esq.

    Attorney

    Satisfied Customers:

    1142
    Run my own successful business/contract law practice.
  • http://ww2.justanswer.com/uploads/ohioatty/2009-1-22_185545_me.jpg J.Hazelbaker's Avatar

    J.Hazelbaker

    Attorney

    Satisfied Customers:

    393
    Experienced and trained in the area of business law.
  • http://ww2.justanswer.com/uploads/scottymacesq/2009-6-10_221523_small.jpg RGMacEsq's Avatar

    RGMacEsq

    Attorney

    Satisfied Customers:

    393
    Licensed Texas General Practice Attorney
  • http://ww2.justanswer.com/uploads/BA/barristerinky/2012-6-10_22423_office.64x64.jpg Barrister's Avatar

    Barrister

    Attorney

    Satisfied Customers:

    301
    13 years practicing attorney, MBA
 
 
 

Related Business Law Questions