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Section 164.052(a)(13) of the Medical Practice Act authorizes disciplinary action against any licensee for permitting another to use his license to practice medicine. Section 164.052(a)(17) authorizes disciplinary action against a practitioner for aiding or abetting, directly or indirectly, the practice of medicine by non-licensed individuals or entities.
Primarily, this doctrine prohibits physicians from entering into partnerships, employee relationships, fee splitting, or other situations with non-physicians where the physician's practice of medicine is in any way controlled or directed by, or fees shared with a non-physician. So at a minimun, yes the physician would have to own at least 51%. However, even then the physician could not split his fees with a non-physician.
Generally, physicians may enter into independent contractor arrangements with non-physicians. However, whether an independent contractor situation exists is a question of law and attendant facts.