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Yes. A U.S. Citizen could simply use his or her Social Security Number for the sole proprietorship. That said, a Chinese citizen could obtain an EIN from the IRS, as you hve suggested, and use it to operate a business as a sole proprietorship.
The only U.S. legal entity that an alien cannot own is an S-Corporation, because it is expressly prohibited by the Internal Revenue Code.
Hope this helps.
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